History

70-44 BC
Burebista established the first Dacian state.

106-44 AD
Transylvania was part of the Roman Empire (Province of Dacia).

3rd to 6th century
Goths, Huns, Gepids and Avars ruled in Transylvania.

Second half of the 7th century
Slavic clans settled in Transylvania.

10th to 12th century
Transylvania was gradually incorporated into the Hungarian Kingdom.

1141-1162
Under the rule of the Hungarian King Géza II the first German settlers, mainly Franks from the rivers Rhine and Moselle, settled in Transylvania.

1211-1225
The Teutonic Knights built castles and established villages in the region of Braşov.

1224
Diploma Andreanum for the German settlers (hospites). Andrew II of Hungary confirmed the territorial autonomy of the German settlers.

1241/42, 1285
Mongolian invasion in Transylvania

1376
Oldest existing guild charter for the Seven Sees

1395
First Turkish invasion

1437/38
Peasant uprising in the areas under Hungarian rule; first union of the “nations” (Hungarian nobility, Szeklers, Saxons); great Turkish invasion, Sebeş (Mühlbach) was destroyed.

1486
King Matei Corvin confirmed the unity of all Saxons (Universitas Saxonum) in the King's land. The naming of the German settlers as “Saxons” (saxones) dates back to medieval Hungarian officialese.

1526
Battle near Mohács; the Turks conquered the Hungarian lowlands.

1542
The Transylvanian parliament recognised the Ottoman suzerainty.

1543
Johannes Honterus proclaimed his school ordinance “Constitutio Scholae Coronensis” and the “Reformation of the church in Braşov (Kronstadt) and the entire province of Bârsei (Burzenland)” in Braşov; introduction of services in the native languages (German, Hungarian) in Braşov

1544
First mention of a girls school in Braşov

1547
“Church Order for all Germans in Transylvania”; as a consequence, all Saxons became Protestant (1550).

1557–1568
Implementation of a modified religious tolerance regulation for Transylvania

1583
Establishment of own land rights for the Transylvanian Saxons which was valid until the Austrian Civil Code was introduced in 1853.

1593–1606
Long Turkish War: Emperor Rudolf II of Habsburg tries to win back Transylvania without success; destruction, plagues and famine; Mihai Viteazul, Voivode of Walachia, occupied Transylvania (1599-1600).

1613–1629
Peaceful era under the rule of Prince Gabriel Bethlen

1657–1662
The land was devastated by disputes over the throne, with the Ottomans and Habsburgs interfering too.

1688
The Prince and the nations of Transylvania accepted the suzerainty of Emperor Leopold I.

1691
After the death of Prince Michael Apafi, Emperor Leopold I also became the Prince of Transylvania and recognised the state's constitution, including the provisions regarding religious tolerance – the “Diploma Leopoldinum”.

1697
Unification of Greek-Catholic church in Transylvania

1734
The first Protestants from inner Austria were relocated to Transylvania (transmigrated).

1751
The Transylvanian Court Chancellery (Siebenbürgische Hofkanzlei) in Vienna took over Transylvanian administration.

1765
Transylvania became a Great Princedom.

1791
“Supplex Libellus Valachorum”, Memorandum of the Transylvanian Romanians addressing Emperor Leopold II and demanding equal rights and seats in the Transylvanian parliament.

1848/49
March Revolution; temporary union between the Princedom and Hungary; civil war, Romanian and Saxons supported the Habsburgs; abolition of serfdom.

1867
Austrian-Hungarian settlement; Transylvania was no longer a crownland but part of the Hungarian half of the empire.

1876
Final abolition of the territorial autonomy of the Transylvanian Saxons in the King's land, new administrative structure was established.

From about 1879
Hungarianisation measures, tensions arise between the different nationalities.

1892
Memorandum of the Transylvanian Romanians addressing Emperor Franz Joseph; demanding the cancellation of Hungarianisation measures and equal rights for the largest group of the population

1918
Breakdown of Austria-Hungary; with the resolutions of Alba Iulia (Karlsburg), the Transylvanian Romanians declare their annexation to Romania, granting certain rights to the minorities.

1919
Mediaş (Mediasch) declaration of annexation of the Saxons, foundation of the Association of Germans in Romania

1923
Constitution of Greater Romania; minority rights were not incorporated.

1940
Northern Transylvania became part of Hungary by the Second Award of Vienna; fascist military dictatorship under Marshall Ion Antonescu

1941-1944
In June 1941 Romania joined in the German invasion of the Soviet Union.

1944
23 August: Romania surrendered and declared war on its former allies; 6-19 September: Saxon evacuation in Northern and some villages of Central Transylvania; internments in Southern Transylvania

1945
From 11 January: Deportation of Germans to the Soviet Union for forced labour; 23 March: (Second) land reform, complete expropriation of German farmers; 8/9 May: Ceasefire all over Europe

1950
Romanian Germans received voting rights again.

1952-1968
“Autonomous Hungarian Region” in the Szekler land (Székelyföld)

1956
Houses and farms were returned to the Romanian Germans.

1967
Diplomatic relationships started between the Federal Republic of Germany and Romania.

From 1978
Increased immigration of Germans in the course of family reunions

1989
Overthrow of dictator Ceauşescu; end of the sole reign of the Communist Party, foundation of the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania.

1996
The Protestant Church (Augsburg Confession) is left with 17,867 members; in 1978 it had 166,100 members; Romanian-Hungarian Basic Treaty, includes the recognition of state borders and minority rights for Hungarians in Romania

2007
Romania became a member of the European Union; Sibiu was European Cultural Capital.

  • King Géza II, woodcut (1488)

    King Géza II, woodcut (1488)

  • Cisnădioara, fortified church (13th century)

    Cisnădioara, fortified church (13th century)

  • Cârţa Monastery (13th century)

    Cârţa Monastery (13th century)

  • Prince Gabriel Bethlen (1613-1629)

    Prince Gabriel Bethlen (1613-1629)

  • Sibiu, Bust of Emperor Franz I, 1829

    Sibiu, Bust of Emperor Franz I, 1829