Christus der Weinstock
Şchei – Vorstadt von Kronstadt/Braşov
2. Hälfte 19. Jahrhundert
46,3 × 41,2 cm
Christusmonogramm IC XC am Kreuz, Gottestitel im Kreuznimbus HO ŎN
Die Hinterglasikone entstand in Şchei, der rumänischen Vorstadt von Kronstadt/Braşov. Diese entwickelte sich im 19. Jahrhundert zu einem Zentrum der orthodoxen Ikonenmalerei, in dem großformatige farbenprächtige Hinterglasikonen durch mehrere Maler in Arbeitsteilung hergestellt wurden.
Dargestellt ist das Motiv des „Christus im Weinstock“, bei dem aus der Seitenwunde des Heilands eine große Weinrebe wächst. Der Auferstandene sitzt auf einem quaderförmigen Objekt, das einerseits sein Grab andererseits den Altar symbolisiert, und presst eine Traube in einen Kelch aus. Hinter ihm ist das Kreuz mit den Marterwerkzeugen zu sehen. Dieser Bildtyp erfreute sich unter den Glasmalern Siebenbürgens und ihren ländlichen Kunden großer Beliebtheit.
Das Motiv versinnbildlicht die Verbindung von Blut Christi und Wein in der Eucharistie. Es ist eng verknüpft mit den Darstellungen des „Christus in der Kelter“ in der spätmittelalterlichen westlichen Kunst. Das eigenhändige Auspressen der Traube in den Abendmahlskelch verweist auf die Einsetzung des Abendmahls durch Christus selbst und die Freiwilligkeit der Passion, die die Grundvoraussetzung für die Erlösung der Gläubigen bildet:
Und er nahm den Kelch und dankte, gab ihnen den und sprach: Trinket alle daraus. Das ist mein Blut des Bundes, das vergossen wird für viele zur Vergebung der Sünden. (Matthäus 26, 27-28).
Literatur: Sedler, Irmgard/Tataru, Marius: Zerbrechliche Heiligenwelten. Rumänische Hinterglasikonen. Kornwestheim 2004, Nr. 177, S. 155.
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