Burebista established the first Dacian state.
Transylvania was part of the Roman Empire (Province of Dacia).
3rd to 6th century
Goths, Huns, Gepids and Avars ruled in Transylvania.
Second half of the 7th century
Slavic clans settled in Transylvania.
10th to 12th century
Transylvania was gradually incorporated into the Hungarian Kingdom.
Under the rule of the Hungarian King Géza II the first German settlers, mainly Franks from the rivers Rhine and Moselle, settled in Transylvania.
The Teutonic Knights built castles and established villages in the region of Braşov.
Diploma Andreanum for the German settlers (hospites). Andrew II of Hungary confirmed the territorial autonomy of the German settlers.
Mongolian invasion in Transylvania
Oldest existing guild charter for the Seven Sees
First Turkish invasion
Peasant uprising in the areas under Hungarian rule; first union of the “nations” (Hungarian nobility, Szeklers, Saxons); great Turkish invasion, Sebeş (Mühlbach) was destroyed.
King Matei Corvin confirmed the unity of all Saxons (Universitas Saxonum) in the King’s land. The naming of the German settlers as “Saxons” (saxones) dates back to medieval Hungarian officialese.
Battle near Mohács; the Turks conquered the Hungarian lowlands.
The Transylvanian parliament recognised the Ottoman suzerainty.
Johannes Honterus proclaimed his school ordinance “Constitutio Scholae Coronensis” and the “Reformation of the church in Braşov (Kronstadt) and the entire province of Bârsei (Burzenland)” in Braşov; introduction of services in the native languages (German, Hungarian) in Braşov
First mention of a girls school in Braşov
“Church Order for all Germans in Transylvania”; as a consequence, all Saxons became Protestant (1550).
Implementation of a modified religious tolerance regulation for Transylvania
Establishment of own land rights for the Transylvanian Saxons which was valid until the Austrian Civil Code was introduced in 1853.
Long Turkish War: Emperor Rudolf II of Habsburg tries to win back Transylvania without success; destruction, plagues and famine; Mihai Viteazul, Voivode of Walachia, occupied Transylvania (1599-1600).
Peaceful era under the rule of Prince Gabriel Bethlen
The land was devastated by disputes over the throne, with the Ottomans and Habsburgs interfering too.
The Prince and the nations of Transylvania accepted the suzerainty of Emperor Leopold I.
After the death of Prince Michael Apafi, Emperor Leopold I also became the Prince of Transylvania and recognised the state’s constitution, including the provisions regarding religious tolerance – the “Diploma Leopoldinum”.
Unification of Greek-Catholic church in Transylvania
The first Protestants from inner Austria were relocated to Transylvania (transmigrated).
The Transylvanian Court Chancellery (Siebenbürgische Hofkanzlei) in Vienna took over Transylvanian administration.
Transylvania became a Great Princedom.
“Supplex Libellus Valachorum”, Memorandum of the Transylvanian Romanians addressing Emperor Leopold II and demanding equal rights and seats in the Transylvanian parliament.
March Revolution; temporary union between the Princedom and Hungary; civil war, Romanian and Saxons supported the Habsburgs; abolition of serfdom.
Austrian-Hungarian settlement; Transylvania was no longer a crownland but part of the Hungarian half of the empire.
Final abolition of the territorial autonomy of the Transylvanian Saxons in the King’s land, new administrative structure was established.
From about 1879
Hungarianisation measures, tensions arise between the different nationalities.
Memorandum of the Transylvanian Romanians addressing Emperor Franz Joseph; demanding the cancellation of Hungarianisation measures and equal rights for the largest group of the population
Breakdown of Austria-Hungary; with the resolutions of Alba Iulia (Karlsburg), the Transylvanian Romanians declare their annexation to Romania, granting certain rights to the minorities.
Mediaş (Mediasch) declaration of annexation of the Saxons, foundation of the Association of Germans in Romania
Constitution of Greater Romania; minority rights were not incorporated.
Northern Transylvania became part of Hungary by the Second Award of Vienna; fascist military dictatorship under Marshall Ion Antonescu
In June 1941 Romania joined in the German invasion of the Soviet Union.
23 August: Romania surrendered and declared war on its former allies; 6-19 September: Saxon evacuation in Northern and some villages of Central Transylvania; internments in Southern Transylvania
From 11 January: Deportation of Germans to the Soviet Union for forced labour; 23 March: (Second) land reform, complete expropriation of German farmers; 8/9 May: Ceasefire all over Europe
Romanian Germans received voting rights again.
“Autonomous Hungarian Region” in the Szekler land (Székelyföld)
Houses and farms were returned to the Romanian Germans.
Diplomatic relationships started between the Federal Republic of Germany and Romania.
Increased immigration of Germans in the course of family reunions
Overthrow of dictator Ceauşescu; end of the sole reign of the Communist Party, foundation of the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania.
The Protestant Church (Augsburg Confession) is left with 17,867 members; in 1978 it had 166,100 members; Romanian-Hungarian Basic Treaty, includes the recognition of state borders and minority rights for Hungarians in Romania
Romania became a member of the European Union; Sibiu was European Cultural Capital.